Thursday, March 12, 2020

The Annapolis Convention of 1786

The Annapolis Convention of 1786 The Annapolis Convention was an early American national political convention held at Manns Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland, on September 11- 14, 1786. Attended by twelve delegates from the five states of New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia, the convention was called to address and remove the self-serving protectionist trade barriers each state had independently established. With the United States government still operating under the state power-heavy Articles of Confederation, each state was largely autonomous, with the central government lacking any authority to regulate trade between and among the various states. While the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and North Carolina had appointed delegates to the Annapolis Convention, the failed to arrive in time to participate. The other four of the 13 original states, Connecticut, Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia, refused or chose not to take part. Though it was comparatively small and failed to accomplish its intended purpose, the Annapolis Convention was a major step leading to the creation of the U.S. Constitution and the current federal government system. The Reason for the Annapolis Convention After the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783, the leaders of the new American nation took on the daunting job of creating a government capable of fairly and efficiently meeting what they knew would be an ever-growing list of public needs and demands. America’s first attempt at a constitution, the Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, created a rather weak central government, leaving most powers to the states. This resulted in a series of localized tax rebellions, economic depressions, and problems with trade and commerce that the central government was unable to resolve, such as: In 1786, a dispute over alleged economic injustices and suspension of civil rights by the state of Massachusetts resulted in Shays Rebellion, an often violent dispute in which protestors were eventually subdued by a privately raised and funded militia.  In 1785, Maryland and Virginia engaged in a particularly nasty dispute over which state should be allowed to profit from the commercial use of the rivers that crossed both states. Under the Articles of Confederation, each state was free to enact and enforce its own laws regarding trade, leaving the federal government powerless to deal with trade disputes between different states or to regulate interstate commerce. Realizing that a more comprehensive approach to the powers of the central government was needed, the Virginia legislature, at the suggestion of future fourth President of the United States James Madison, called for a meeting of delegates from all of the existing thirteen states in September 1786, in Annapolis, Maryland. The Annapolis Convention Setting Officially called as a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, the Annapolis Convention was held September 1114, 1786 at Manns Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland. A total of only 12 delegates from just five states- New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia – actually attended the convention. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and North Carolina had appointed commissioners who failed to arrive in Annapolis in time to attend, while Connecticut, Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia chose not to participate at all. Delegates who attended the Annapolis Convention included: From New York: Egbert Benson and Alexander HamiltonFrom New Jersey: Abraham Clark, William Houston, and James SchuremanFrom Pennsylvania: Tench CoxeFrom Delaware: George Read, John Dickinson, and Richard BassettFrom Virginia: Edmund Randolph, James Madison, and St. George Tucker The Results of the Annapolis Convention On September 14, 1786, the 12 delegates attending the Annapolis Convention unanimously approved a resolution recommending that Congress convene a broader constitutional convention to be held the following May in Philadelphia for the purpose of amending the weak Articles of Confederation to rectify a number of serious defects. The resolution expressed the delegates’ hope that the constitutional convention would be attended by representatives of more states and that the delegates would be authorized to examine areas of concern broader than simply laws regulating of commercial trade between the states. The resolution, which was submitted to Congress and the state legislatures, expressed the delegates’ deep concern regarding â€Å"important defects in the system of the Federal Government,† which they warned, â€Å"may be found greater and more numerous than even these acts imply.† With only five of the thirteen states represented, the authority of the Annapolis Convention was limited. As a result, other than recommending the calling of a full constitutional convention, the delegates attending the delegates took no action on the issues that had brought them together. â€Å"That the express terms of the powers of your Commissioners supposing a deputation from all the States, and having for object the Trade and Commerce of the United States, Your Commissioners did not conceive it advisable to proceed on the business of their mission, under the Circumstances of so partial and defective a representation,† stated the convention’s resolution. The events of the Annapolis Convention also prompted eventual first President of the United States George Washington to add his plea for a stronger federal government. In a letter to fellow Founding Father James Madison dated November 5, 1786, Washington memorably wrote, â€Å"The consequences of a lax, or inefficient government, are too obvious to be dwelt on. Thirteen Sovereignties pulling against each other and all tugging the federal head, will soon bring ruin on the whole.† While the Annapolis Convention failed to accomplish its purpose, the delegates’ recommendations were adopted by the U.S. Congress. Eight months later, on May 25, 1787, the Philadelphia Convention convened and succeeded in creating the present U.S. Constitution.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Inheritance Lab Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Inheritance Lab - Essay Example 2. Identify and record your possible genotypes based on your phenotypes. Genotypes are represented using two alleles. Identify the alleles using the letters indicated below (capital letter indicates dominant allele, lowercase indicates recessive allele): 3. Using your possible genotypes, identify and record all of the possible pairings of parental genotypes that could have led to your possible genotypes. Crosses are denoted in this form: FF x Ff and indicates the genotypes of both parents. You should list all of the possible crosses that could lead to your phenotype. Use the chart below to record the observations of your phenotypes and to record your inferences regarding your genotype and all of the possible crossings of parental genotypes that can account for your genotype. Phenotypes are expressed with a single letter related to the trait. Genotypes include both alleles and are, thus, expressed with two letters (one for each allele). Possible parental genotypes and crosses consist of two genotypes crossed. For instance, a freckled person will have a phenotype of F and possible genotypes of FF and Ff. One of the possible parental genotype and crosses is (FF x Ff). Be sure to list all possible parental genotypes in terms of possible crosses. Crosses are denoted in this form: FF x Ff and you should list all of the possible crosses that could lead to your phenotype. It was observed that the presence of a dominant gene in the genotype always led to the expression of the dominant trait, which is seen as the phenotype. In addition, the occurrence of a certain genotype could result from the crossing of several possible parental genotypes. This lab provided knowledge that recessive traits were denoted by small letters while dominant traits were denoted by capital letters. One component of my genotype came from each parent due to

Sunday, February 9, 2020

ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN Assignment

ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN IN ADULTS AND CHILDREN - Assignment Example The symptoms of acute abdominal pain are nausea and vomiting. Other indications include guarding which is the contraction of abdominal muscles and when pressure is applied to the abdomen. There would be rigidity of the abdominal muscles or rebound tenderness, an increase in severe pain and discomfort when pressure is being applied to the localized area of the abdomen. The patient also has increased white blood cell count. In older patients, presentation delays, coexistent of disease and social and physical barriers complicate acute abdominal pain presentation (Nabi, 2011). There are several diagnostic methods in evaluation of acute abdominal pain. Laboratory tests are done on the blood and urine specimen. The ultrasound is used in the evaluation of abdominal spaces with sound waves while the Computer Tomography (CT) scan is an x-ray technique using a computer program to develop detailed images. The ultrasound and CT are reliable in detecting common diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain. However, the ultrasound misses more cases than CT scan that is more sensitive (van Randen, Lameris, van Es, van Heessewijk, van Ramshorst, Ten, Bouma, van Leeuwen, Bossuyt, Stoker, Boermeester, & OPTIMA Study Group, 2011). Multi-detector CT can be used in evaluating patients with acute abdominal pain. It is an extremely CT noninvasive method for acute abdominal pain diagnosis and management. In the plan of care for patients with acute abdominal pain, the nurse has a key role in the assessment, history taking and management. Assessment is done through physical examination and acquiring diagnostic data. A comprehensive assessment of pain including onset, location, characterization, duration, onset, frequency, quality, and intensity should be performed. Factors such as fear, fatigue and lack of information should be reduced to eliminate factors that may increase the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Write A Detailed Comparison Essay Example for Free

Write A Detailed Comparison Essay The class has been studying different types of newspapers-Tabloids and Broadsheets. The tabloid The Sun and the broadsheet is The Times. Stereotypically a tabloid is more informal, more pictures, humorous and has obvious bias. Its target audience is less educated and more gossip. A broadsheet newspaper on the other hand is targeted at more sophisticated and smarter and has more information, fewer pictures, more analysis, more in depth politics and is serious. The newspaper story we worked on was about an Arab who planned to plant a bomb in his pregnant girlfriend holdall and when the aeroplane was airborne it was going to explode. Luckily the security found the bomb and dis-armed it. He said he couldnt go on the El Al flight because he was an Arab, so he was going to meet her at where they were planning to get married in Tel Aviv. They say it would have killed all 400 passengers and crew and send his girlfriend and the baby to certain death. While both have the same story there are some similarities and difference. The similarities include the same basic facts, same picture (but different size) and the layout is also the same. The differences are the size of the writing is smaller; the overall size in the broadsheet is larger and has more information in a smaller section. Where as the in the tabloids the writing is bigger and the overall size is smaller. Also the broadsheet has longer sentences. Another difference is the target audience is different for example tabloids are targeted at lees educated, younger and more humorous kind of people, whereas broadsheets are stereotypically for the more educated, political and more sophisticated and serious e. g. The Sun newspaper says Detectives said it would have destroyed the jumbo and slaughtered all 400 passengers and crew. Where as The Times says it would have resulted in the loss of 400 passengers and crew. This shows the style of writing like in the tabloid it exaggerated the point (e. g. words which are highlighted) and this has an effect on the readers because Slaughtered is a kind of dramatic and effective word. Whereas in the broadsheet it is more serious, more calm and is less exaggerated and not as dramatic as a tabloid. The visual appearance also has similarities and differences. The similarities are they both have mastheads (except in different style), headlines, sub-headlines and small adverts near the bottom. The differences are tabloids takes up more of the page on a main story, pictures are bigger, has puns (e. g. next to the mast head it said The Sam Frocks collection. This also makes it more humorous and makes more young males want to buy it). The sub-headline was also longer. Broadsheets have smaller pictures, more writing and the headline is shorter but meaningful (makes the reader want to read on and get interested) and has no puns. This might be because a more mature newspaper wouldnt put something humorous right next to a big serious story. The content of the story is the same only in the basic facts but otherwise different. Tabloids even show an obvious bias towards someone or something e. g. in The Sun they referred to the man as an Arab rat and this shows that he is cunning, clever and scheming and nearly got away with it. Also how they used emotive language e. g. Sobbing girl, this also had an effect because the audience would of felt sorry for her. This emotive language shows that the word Sobbing is more kind of slang and make the reader feel pity on her. The broadsheet didnt show obvious bias because mainly it is a more mature type of newspaper and because it is more mature it doesnt take sides and puts both sides of the argument. Also the order in which they refer to things is very different but there were some in the same position of the order. The first two paragraphs have the same kind of information and this might be because it is the main part of the story and the aims of the two newspapers was to get the reader interested and read on. But from there it is in different orders but has the same information in different places. This might be because the newspapers are aimed at different audiences. The styles of the two papers are very different. The broadsheets use a wider range of vocabulary and focuses on the facts and uses comments to add realism to the story. Where as the tabloid shows obvious bias towards the bad guy and makes everyone reading feel sympathetic towards the innocent people such as the girl was going to die for no reason all because of her boyfriend and it said she got duped. The writers referred to her as a Sobbing girl and this gives an image in the readers mind thinking that she is weak and sad and fragile, and needs looking after. The Sun doesnt focus a lot on the basic facts and focuses more on the people e. g. the way they use the emotive language to make people feel sympathetic towards the innocent people. It would have destroyed the jumbo and slaughtered all 400 passengers and crew. And hundreds could have been killed if the jet had plummeted into busy streets. The aim of this was to make the reader feel hatred towards the terrorist and feel sorry for the people who would have died for no reason. The Times just focuses mostly on the facts. She was on her way to Israel, where the Arab said he would marry her. This also a bit similar to The Suns quote because this is just focusing on the people e. g. this makes people feel sad for the girl because she was duped by her fianci. Although both stories are the same, the style they are written in is different. This is mainly because the newspapers are targeted at different audiences (tabloids are for the less educated, humorous and young. Broadsheets are for the more sophisticated and people who understand a wider range of vocabulary). In conclusion the main reason is that the target audience is different and as a result of that the way they are reported.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

net bans :: essays research papers

In July of 1995, Florida put into effect a new law banning the use of gill nets in all inshore water of Florida. The law contained two significant provisions: 1) some non-gill nets would be allowed, but maximum size would now be limited to 500 square feet; and 2) unemployment compensation would be available to affected netters through a 20 million dollar fund set aside to purchase the nets that would be made obsolete(Stearns, par.5). This ban on nets has led to a dramatic comeback for a variety of fish species, including the Spanish mackerel and Florida mullet. In the following essay I intend to show the ban laws, what they encompass whom they affected, as well as their reaction. Most importantly, I intend to show the ban has made an overall improvement on Florida's marine environment. Over the past 100 years, Florida has been known for having some of the best recreational fishing as well as marine environments. Locals and tourists alike could pick any given day to spend on the water and return with a wide variety of game fish. Unfortunately, over the past decade this trend has been on the decline. The cause of this decrease in the population of Florida's marine environment as well as in other parts of the world, is the indiscriminate use of the monofilament fishing net (par.2). One of the areas that have seen just how destructive these nets can be, is the Florida Coast. In 1990, commercial gill-netters harvested 26 million pounds of mullet (DeYoung, par.56). In 1994, Florida's became alarmed when the mullet spawning population plummeted to about 15 percent of normal. They also felt the impact this loss of forage food had on game fish. One of the largest causes of this plummet is the lucrative market in the Far East for mullet row, which had almost completely decimated Florida's stock of these fish (Stearns, par.2-3). Due to this large decline, the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission (MFC) placed restrictions on recreational and commercial harvest of mullet. In 1992, recreational fishermen were now limited to fifty fish per boat per day, with no size limit, while commercial fishermen have no "bag limit", but are required to release any mullet under eleven inches in length. The results of the restrictions lowered the harvest on mullet by recreational fishermen from four million to one million pounds. There was a 75 percent reduction in recreational harvest as a result of the FMC's restrictions.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Automated Voting System

This chapter discuss about the The Student Council elections have always been a perennial activity for every school. It is an activity wherein each student is required to choose from a set of candidates who will represent each position in the Student Council. In order for the student to accomplish this, the student must go through several processes. First the student must go to the Administration Office if he is a registered voter, then goes to the voting area and chooses the candidates he likes. After that, the student submits the filled-up ballot form to the voting administrator in order for his votes to be cast. Then the student is marked with an indelible ink to signify that he has already voted. After all the votes have been cast, the voting procedure goes again through several processes. The votes are collected and are then counted, which could take several hours to several days, depending on the volume of votes. Background of the Study The chapter discuss computers greatly enhance the speed and efficiency of voting process. Results could be attained even right after the elections reducing the time to a mere fraction compared to the time it takes if the voting is done manually. It also increases the level of the voting experience because of multimedia enhancements. The present generation, people became more literate especially with the use of computers. Technologies emerged to introduce many different ways of advancement. Computer machines are of these. Computers now in existence are the most powerful machines than can do anything people’s lives. It is in this effect that the proponent has decided to propose a system to improve the existing manual voting system. The proponent aims to convert the existing manual system into an automated voting system. Information Technology Elections are held in every school year for the BSIT students of Arellano University-Pasig. Where the positions are President, Vice- Presidents, Secretary, Treasurer, Auditor, P. I. O, and First year to Fourth year Representative. Using computers would make the election faster. With the new system, votes are tallied and transmitted electronically.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

How to Use Repetition to Develop Effective Paragraphs

An important quality of an effective paragraph is unity. A unified paragraph sticks to one topic from start to finish, with every sentence contributing to the central purpose and main idea of that paragraph. But a strong paragraph is more than just a collection of loose sentences. Those sentences need to be clearly connected so that readers can follow along, recognizing how one detail leads to the next. A paragraph with clearly connected sentences is said to be cohesive. Repetition of Key Words Repeating keywords in a paragraph is an important technique for achieving cohesion. Of course, careless or excessive repetition is boring—and a source of clutter. But used skillfully and selectively, as in the paragraph below, this technique can hold sentences together and focus the readers attention on a central idea. We Americans are a charitable and humane people: we have institutions devoted to every good cause from rescuing homeless cats to preventing World War III. But what have we done to promote the art of thinking? Certainly we make no room for thought in our daily lives. Suppose a man were to say to his friends, Im not going to PTA tonight (or choir practice or the baseball game) because I need some time to myself, some time to think? Such a man would be shunned by his neighbors; his family would be ashamed of him. What if a teenager were to say, Im not going to the dance tonight because I need some time to think? His parents would immediately start looking in the Yellow Pages for a psychiatrist. We are all too much like Julius Caesar: we fear and distrust people who think too much. We believe that almost anything is more important than thinking.(Carolyn Kane, from Thinking: A Neglected Art. Newsweek, December 14, 1981) Notice that the author uses various forms of the same word—think, thinking, thought—to link the different examples and reinforce the main idea of the paragraph. (For the benefit of budding rhetoricians, this device is called polyptoton.) Repetition of Key Words and Sentence Structures A similar way to achieve cohesion in our writing is to repeat a particular sentence structure along with a keyword or phrase. Although we usually try to vary the length and shape of our sentences, now and then we may choose to repeat a construction to emphasize connections between related ideas. Heres a short example of structural repetition from the play Getting Married by George Bernard Shaw: There are couples who dislike one another furiously for several hours at a time; there are couples who dislike one another permanently; and there are couples who never dislike one another; but these last are people who are incapable of disliking anybody. Notice how Shaws reliance on semicolons (rather than periods) reinforces the sense of unity and cohesion in this passage. Extended Repetition On rare occasions, emphatic repetitions may extend beyond just two or three main clauses. Not long ago, the Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk provided an example of extended repetition (specifically, the device called anaphora) in his Nobel Prize Lecture, My Fathers Suitcase: The question we writers are asked most often, the favorite question, is: Why do you write? I write because I have an innate need to write. I write because I can’t do normal work as other people do. I write because I want to read books like the ones I write. I write because I am angry at everyone. I write because I love sitting in a room all day writing. I write because I can partake of real life only by changing it. I write because I want others, the whole world, to know what sort of life we lived, and continue to live, in Istanbul, in Turkey. I write because I love the smell of paper, pen, and ink. I write because I believe in literature, in the art of the novel, more than I believe in anything else. I write because it is a habit, a passion. I write because I am afraid of being forgotten. I write because I like the glory and interest that writing brings. I write to be alone. Perhaps I write because I hope to understand why I am so very, very angry at everyone. I write because I like to be read. I write because once I have begun a novel, an essay, a page I want to finish it. I write because everyone expects me to write. I write because I have a childish belief in the immortality of libraries, and in the way my books sit on the shelf. I write because it is exciting to turn all life’s beauties and riches into words. I write not to tell a story but to compose a story. I write because I wish to escape from the foreboding that there is a place I must go but— as in a dream— can’t quite get to. I write because I have never managed to be happy. I write to be happy.(The Nobel Lecture, 7 December 2006. Translated from the Turkish, by Maureen Freely. The Nobel Foundation 2006) Two well-known examples of extended repetition appear in our Essay Sampler: Judy Bradys essay Why I Want a Wife (included in part three of the Essay Sampler) and the most famous portion of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.s I Have A Dream speech. Final Reminder: Needless repetition that only clutters our writing should be avoided. But the careful repetition of keywords and phrases can be an effective strategy for fashioning cohesive paragraphs.